bangalore is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Located on the Mysore Plateau in southwestern Karnataka, Bangalore has an estimated metropolitan population of 6.1 million (2006), making it India's third-largest city and fifth-largest metropolitan area. Though historical references to the city predate 900 CE, a written history of continuous settlement exists only from 1537, when Kempe Gowda I, whom many regard as the architect of modern Bangalore, built a mud fort in the city and established it as a province of the Vijayanagara Empire. On December 11, 2005, the government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted the proposal by Jnanpith Award-winner U.R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to its Kannada name, Bengal?ru. The new name was expected to be effective from November 1, 2006. However, due to changes in the political leadership of the state government, it is unclear whether the proposed name change will be implemented.
During the British Raj, Bangalore developed as a center for colonial rule in South India. The establishment of the Bangalore Cantonment brought in large numbers of migrant Tamil, Telugu and North Indian workers for developing and maintaining the infrastructure of the cantonment. The city's temperate climate, which is milder than those of other cities in the country, has been a major attraction to people from other parts of India. After India gained independence in 1947, Bangalore evolved into a manufacturing hub for public sector heavy industries—particularly aerospace, space and defence. The establishment and success of high technology firms in Bangalore after the liberalisation of India's economy has led to the growth of India's information technology (IT) industry. Bangalore is referred to as the Silicon Valley of India and accounts for 35 percent of India's software exports. Home to prestigious colleges and research institutions, the city has the second-highest literacy rate in the nation. However, as a large and growing metropolis in the developing world, Bangalore continues to struggle with problems such as air pollution, traffic congestion, and crime.[+